第七篇 “Don’t Drink Alone” Gets New Meaning
In what may be bad news for bars and pubs，a European research group has found that people drinking alcohol outside of meals have a significantly higher risk of cancer in the mouth and neck than do those taking their libations with food. Luigino Dal Maso and his colleagues studied the drinking patterns of 1,500 patients from four cancer studies2 and another 3，500 adults who had never had cancer.
After the researchers accounted for the amount of alcohol consumed, they found that individuals who downed a significant share of their alcohol outside of meals3 faced at least a 50 to 80 percent risk of cancer in the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus, when compared with people who drank only at meals. Consuming alcohol without food also increased by at least 20 percent the likelihood of laryngeal4 cancer. “ Roughly 95 percent of cancers at these four sites5 traced to smoking or drinking6 by the study volunteers，” Dal Maso says. The discouraging news, his team reports, is that drinking with meals didn’t eliminate cancer risk at any of the sites.
For their new analysis，the European scientists divided people in the study into four groups， based on how many drinks they reported having in an average week7. The lowest-intake group included people who averaged up to8 20 drinks 狂 week. The highest group reported downing at least 56 servings of alcohol weekly for an average of eight or more per day.9 Cancer risks for the mouth and neck sites rose steadily with consumption even for people who reported drinking only with
meals. For instance, compared with people in the lowest-consumption group, participants who drank 21 to 34 alcohol servings a week at least doubled their cancer risk for all sites other than the larynx10. If people in these consumption groups took some of those drinks outside meals, those in the higher consumption group at least quadrupled their risk for oral cavity and esophageal cancers.
People in the highest-consumption group who drank only with meals had 10 times the risk of oral cancer, 7 times the risk of pharyngeal cancer, and 16 times the risk of esophageal cancer compared with those who averaged 20 or fewer drinks a week with meals. In contrast, laryngeal cancer risk in the high-intake, with-meals-only group11 was only triple that12 in the low-intake consumers who drank with meals.
“Alcohol can inflame tissues. Over time, that inflammation can trigger cancer. ” Dal Maso says. He suspects that food reduced cancer risk either by partially coating digestive-tract tissues or by scrubbing alcohol off those tissues. He speculates that the reason laryngeal risks were dramatically lower for all study participants traces to the tissue’s lower exposure to alcohol.
1.…than do those taking their libations with food：这是一个倒装句，其正常语序为 than those taking their libations with food do。这里的do是一个代词，代替上半句中的have a significantly higher risk of cancer in the mouth and neck。
2.drinking patterns of 1,500 patients from four cancer studies ：取自四项癌症研究的 1，500 个病例的饮酒习惯模式
3.downed a significant share of their alcohol outside of meals：在就餐时间以外灌下大量烈酒。 down：在此作动词用，意为：“喝下，灌下”；significant：意为“large in amount”（大量的）。
5.these four sites：指该段前两句提到的 oral cavity，pharynx, esophagus, larynx。
6.traced to smoking or drinking：根源就是抽烟或喝酒。trace to:回溯到……
7.in an average week：平均每星期
9.56 servings of alcohol weekly for an average of eight or more per day：每周56 杯，平均每天8杯以上。eight后省略了servings意为“(食物或饮料的）一份”。
10.for all sites other than the larynx：除喉以外的全部部位。other than：除了。
11.high-intake, with-meals-only group：(酒精）高摄入、仅在就餐时饮酒的（实验）组。 high-intake和with-meals-only在此都是合成形容词，修饰group。
12.was only triple that：是它的三倍。that 指该句前半句中的 laryngeal cancer risk。
1.Researchers have found that the risk of cancer in the mouth and neck is higher with people
A who drink alcohol outside of mealsur
B who drink alcohol at meals.
C who never drink alcohol.
D who drink alcohol at bars and pubs.
2.Which of the following is NOT the conclusion made by the researchers about “drinking with meals”?
A It has a lower risk of cancer than drinking without food.
B It may also be a cause of cancer.
C It increases by 20 percent the possibility of cancer in all sites.
D It does not eliminate cancer risk at any of the sites.
3.Approximately how many drinks do the lowest-intake group average per day?
A 3 drinks.B 8 drinks.C 20 drinks.D 56 drinks.
4.Which cancer risk is the lowest among all the four kinds of cancer mentioned in the passage?
A Oral cancer.B Laryngeal cancer.
C Pharyngeal cancer.D Esophageal cancer.
5.According to the last paragraph, tissue’s lower exposure to alcohol
A explains why inflammation triggers cancer.
B accounts for why food can coat digestive-tract tissues.
C is the reason why food can scrub alcohol off tissues.
D reduces the risk of laryngeal cancer.
4.B文章第四段的第一句和第二句是由连接词in contrast连接的两个句子。in contrast表达的是句间的反比关系。第一句说明酒精消费量最大的一组，患其他三种癌症的几率与低酒精摄入量组相比，分别是他们的10倍、7倍和16倍，而第二句告诉我们，相比之下，其患喉癌的机率只是另一组的3倍。因此，B是正确选项。
一定程度上，这对酒吧可能是一个坏消息，欧洲的一个研究小组发现人们在就餐时间以外饮酒会使患口腔和颈部癌症的几率比就餐时饮酒更高。Luigino Dal Maso和他的同事们研究了取自四项癌症研究的1，500个病例的饮酒习惯模式和另外3，500个从没患癌症的成年人的饮酒习惯模式。
在研究者分析了饮酒的总量后，他们发现和只在就餐时饮酒的人相比，在就餐时间以外灌下大量烈酒的人面临至少50%～80%的患口腔癌、咽癌和食道癌的危险。在就餐时间外饮酒也会使患喉癌的可能性增加至少20%。“被研究者的情况说明大约95%患以上四种癌症的原因就是抽烟或饮酒。” Dal Maso说。他的研究小组提供的报告中令人沮丧的消息是就餐时饮酒不会消除患以上任何一种癌症的危险。
“酒精能使组织发炎，一段时间后，炎症可引发癌症。” Dal Maso说。他认为食物降低了患癌症的危险，或是通过覆盖在消化道组织上或是通过将酒精从那些组织上擦掉。他推测所有被研究 者患喉癌的几率比其他癌症低很多的原因是喉部组织被酒精侵害到的部分少得多。